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(6ai) HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It is the virus that can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, if not treated. HIV attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells (T cells), which help the immune system fight off infections. Untreated, HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells (T cells) in the body, making the person more likely to get other infections or infection-related cancers.

(6aii) AIDS : This is the stage of HIV infection that occurs when your immune system is badly damaged and you become vulnerable to opportunistic infections. When the number of your CD4 cells falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (200 cells/mm3), you are considered to have progressed to AIDS. (In someone with a healthy immune system, CD4 counts are between 500 and 1,600 cells/mm3.) You are also considered to have progressed to AIDS if you develop one or more opportunistic illnesses, regardless of your CD4 count.

(6b)

  • diarrhea
  • nausea and vomiting
  • weight loss
  • severe headache
  • joint pain
  • muscle aches
  • shortness of breath
  • chronic cough
  • trouble swallowing

(4)
(i)They lie; They have to tell lies to mislead people about where they were when they were really out buying or using drugs or alcohol. They have to lie about where the hundreds or thousands of dollars went. The more they feel they need drugs, the more likely they are to feel the need to lie.

(ii)They manipulate; They try to encourage good decisions but the addicted person is on a destructive track. The allure of the drugs is so powerful, she feels she needs the drugs to function, to be able to get through another day, to not get desperately sick from withdrawal. So she manipulates those who love her the most

(iii)They are very likely to be engaged in criminal acts; Eventually, the money runs out. They have pawned or sold everything of value. They owe friends and family money. There are no more assets but the drugs or alcohol have to be obtained.
At this point, many people will begin committing crimes. Selling or manufacturing drugs are common ones.

(iv)An addict will shift the blame; this person may have lived their prior life as a highly responsible individual, drug addiction steals that quality away. Whatever happens is never his fault. If he gets fired from a job, it’s the boss’s fault, the addict was unfairly targeted. If he gets in a car accident, it was totally someone else’s fault. If he fails at some activity, those close to him will be blamed.

(v)An addict is very likely to become abusive; It’s tragic that an addict’s blame can even take a violent and abusive form. With the delusional thinking common to most addicts, he can perceive those around him as being threatening, dangerous or malicious. As he shifts the blame, he may physically, mentally or emotionally attack those he blames

(1a)
Justice is what we as a society regard as “right” based on our moral concepts of ethics, rationality, law, religion, equity and fairness, in other words, justice is the proper application of law.

(1b)
the figure 1. Is called Lady justice and labeled part is explained Bellow

(i)Scales: Lady Justice is most often depicted with a set of scales typically suspended from one hand, upon which she measures the strengths of a case’s support and opposition.

(ii)Blindfold: Lady Justice has often been depicted wearing a blindfold. The blindfold represents impartiality, the ideal that justice should be applied without regard to wealth, power, or other status.

(iii)Sword: The sword represented authority in ancient times, and conveys the idea that justice can be swift and final.

(8a)
Political apathy is the lack of interest in politics and political activities by the citizens of a country. When citizens are not interested in the political programmes of a country due to one reason or the other, political apathy is said to have taken place, e.g. the cold feet Nigerians often develop during elections which makes them not to go out to vote could be regarded as political apathy.

(8b)
[Pick any TWO]
(i) Corruption will set in when dishonourable people fill the vacuum created by the absence of credible citizens.
(ii) There will be no accountability on the part of the
government because the people that are supposed to keep the government and the leaders in check have shown no interest in the affairs of the country.
(iii) There will be emergence of an undemocratic government
(iv) Political apathy breeds lawlessness and disorderliness in society

(8c)
[Pick Any FOUR]
(i) Encouraging credible opposition in the political process in order to give the people wider choices.
(ii) Encouraging the people to become favourably disposed towards joining popular groups to enhance
(iii) Encouraging popular participation in elections.
(iv) Defending the fundamental human rights of citizens.
(v) Making leaders accountable to the people who elected them.

(vi) Ensuring good governance which inspires confidence in the citizens to participate in political activities.

(7a)
(i) Constitution is supreme
(ii) Equality of the law
(iii) Presence of fundamental human right

(7b)
(i) Immunity clauses: The constitution stands as a protection to the Executives & Ambassadors from being sued while in office, which puts them above some laws.
(ii) Military rule: This is the forceful take over of civilian government which gives them power to suspend the constitution and then promulgate degree which abuse the fundamental human Rights
(iii) State of emergency: It promote unlawful arrest and restrictions of movement which is an abuse of Rule of law
(iv) Age: its a limitation to equality before the law, since under age are given special treatment and privileges that protect them from capital punishment when engaged in crime.

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